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ICSI is an assisted reproductive technology in which sperm is injected directly into the egg therefore also known as intracytoplasmic sperm injection. It uses specialized micromanipulation tools and equipments.
All steps for stimulation of ovaries and egg retrieval procedure are same as IVF. After the granulosa cells have been stripped away from oocyte with enzymatic action the oocyte is held in place by a holding pipette. A single selected sperm is first immobilized and then drawn into the pipette carrying sperm pierces the oocyte wall and sperm injected directly into the ooplasm. The morning after insemination the eggs are examined to determine whether fertilization has occurred.
Now days we are doing ICSI in majority of the cases, even when there is no male factor associated with infertility, obviously it increases the fertilization rate . But there are few cases in which IVF cannot be done and only ICSI is indicated
Prenatal outcome studies suggest that there is no evidence of increased risk of congenital malformation in babies born of IVF/ICSI